#rEDFE Empowering students’ to find their own way through the trees

#rEDFE Empowering students’ to find their own way through the trees

Background

These notes are based on my presentation delivered at the inaugural researchED Further Education and Vocational Conference held on Saturday 3rd December 2016 at BSix College Hackney London.

Engaging learners through the flip learning method and discovering that there are other ways to deliver land navigation techniques

Introduction

As a lecturer in adventure activities within the further education sector I am always looking for innovative ways to assist learners in acquiring skills. Whilst using established methods to teach land navigation techniques I am constantly looking at new ideas and developments in teaching this subject. Attending the “Understanding the Art of Flip Learning” seminar at Loughborough University on 2nd September 2014 #flipart14 provided evidence that the flip learning teaching method engaged learners and produced improved outcomes. Five researchers all from a higher education background presented their findings at this seminar on the value of flip learning. The information that follows is based on the presentations from:

Prof. Simon Lancaster University of East Anglia

Dr. David Dye Imperial College London

Dr. Jeremy Pritchard University of Birmingham

During this seminar I was also introduced to a method of teaching through ideas (concepts) rather than teaching to a recipe or to a set of instructions. I found this particularly interesting as it may help to reduce the copy and paste internet sources students use to describe various land navigation functions such as obtaining a six figure grid reference and how to obtain a bearing on a base-plate compass. Coming back enthused I looked at ways in which I could introduce both methods in my delivery to students studying land navigation as part of an Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Subsidiary Diploma in Public Services. There were 56 students on this course and throughout the research stage these students were utilised to test findings in both theoretical and practical land navigation activities.

Flip learning

In essence, “flipped learning” means that students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use “class” time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion or debates.

https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/

Why flip?

The traditional teaching method in HE is the lecture and this is a didactic process which provides a baseline knowledge and understanding both of which are low levels on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning with the process being passive not active learning. After the lecture students are then encouraged to improve upon this with personal research. However, for flip learning the students attain this base-level before the lecture through completing pre-learning activities leaving the lecture time free to apply this learning. To enhance knowledge flip learning in the HE environment is achieved through students learning through concepts not a set of recipes (ideas v instructions).

Putting flip learning into practice using a HE science module as an example

To ensure that flip learning embraces the learners a task needs to be drawn up which inspires students to look afresh and seek out unseen/unknown problems and suggest solutions on how they might be solved.

Task: Develop a better steel for a road bridge in an extreme environment

Objective: Stuff matters (to the student)

Assessment – link to module’s criteria and on-line content needs to support this

Context – provide a realistic work related scenario

Vocational interaction – skills needed for work in future as a scientist

Results provide evidence that flip learning was found to increase:

Engagement – encouraged wider reading

Performance – grade profile improved

Promoted ownership!

All above provide benefits in future careers as a scientist: “I felt like a real scientist” were remarks by students. I was impressed with this statement and I wanted to make our students feel like real navigators! During the presentation I put forward Roald Amundsen as an example of a competent land navigator as he led his team to the South Pole, the first humans to get there. His team looked at navigation problems on the way back to base with locating supply depots. These had food and fuel, and it was essential for their survival that they found them. They solved this problem by using a new land navigation technique they developed and every supply depot was located without difficulty and the result was all the team arrived back to base safely. This is in contrast to Scott and his team who had made it to the South Pole a month after Amundsen but had problems locating their supply depots on the home bound route with the result that everyone perished. Amundsen’s technique is still used today under the term aiming off. Amundsen is certainly an excellent example of a competent land navigator.

Summary

Overall flip learning works in HE taking the following into consideration:

  1. Concept (ideas)
  2. Active learning
  3. Vocational interaction – real issue
  4. Frame the challenge – why they need to know?
  5. Unseen/unknown problems – how are these solved?
  6. On-line interaction – videos on VLE with Q & A

With this underpinning students will hopefully have a “Lasting understanding” and a “Proper understanding.”

Flip learning what I did for Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Public Services:

Using the above summary I devised the following:

  1. Move from teaching recipes to concepts
  2. Active learning and introducing low level practical sessions in preparation for assessment during two full day navigation events – walking and orienteering
  3. Vocational interaction – navigation skills in a public services environment
  4. Framed the challenge – how do we become a competent navigator?
  5. Posed unseen/unknown navigation problems
  6. Generated on-line content via college VLE and Scoop It curation

Link to Scoop It curation: http://www.scoop.it/t/land-navigation

Developed the 4 D’s of Land Navigation model

Teaching through concepts and the development of the 4 D’s of Land navigation Model 

Ideas regarding the key themes of land navigation were based on requirements for an effective navigation system noted by Professor Kate Jeffery in Navigation News Sep/Oct 2014. The key themes being: Where are we? Where are we going to? Which way are we going? How far is it?

These became the 4 D’s: detection, destination, direction and distance.

They then formed the set of concepts. Critical characteristics of these concepts were then formulated and these were then discussed with students and they provided comments. A summary of these characteristics were then defined through personal research and student interaction. The next stage involved developing, refining and collating these critical characteristics.

The 4 D’s of Land Navigation Model – concepts with their associated critical characteristics

4ds-of-navigation-jpegThe 4 D’s of Navigation Model’s concepts integrated into a course delivery scheme (BTEC) – concepts located in bottom left hand corner

land-navigation-topic-sequence-diagram

Did using flipped learning techniques work?

  1. On-line interaction through VLE with Q&A and links to Scoop It curation only partially successful with 50% of students actively engaged over the entire unit time frame – September to January
  2. However, these students achieved higher grade profiles than those that did not fully engage in pre-learning
  3. This evidence suggests a link in student initiative and their on-going development of independent learning techniques but ……
  4. Result could also relate to students personal interest in topic
  5. Positive on-line feedback with these active learners provided information to develop the 4 D’s navigation model.

Did delivery using concepts work?

  1. Utilising concepts was largely delivered in session time either classroom based or during practical outdoor activities
  2. Nothing like this on the internet so effectively primary research undertaken by both teacher and students – no copy/paste
  3. Land navigation concepts and critical characteristics were developed through student engagement by face to face discussions this resulted in a perceived ownership with 100% involvement
  4. Performance – students developed real life solutions to unseen/unknown problems during practical navigation activities
  5. Used experiential learning method based on concepts they helped develop
  6. This interaction provided evidence for the 4 D’s Land Navigation model to be included in future delivery scheme

Scholarly activity

An article based on the development of the 4 D’s Land Navigation model was published by the Institute of Outdoor Learning in Horizons 73, Spring 2016

Title: Land Navigation – Coaching Concepts

http://www.outdoor-learning.org/Default.aspx?tabid=176

Also I presented findings at the Nottingham Trent University’s Trent Institute for Learning and Teaching (TILT) Conference held on 5th July 2016

https://www4.ntu.ac.uk/webevents/adq/document-uploads/188159.pdf

References:

‘Understanding the Art of Flip Learning’ seminar held on 2nd September 2014 at Loughborough University #flipart14

Walter Parker in Concept Formation http://teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/teaching-guides/25184

Professor Kate Jeffery ‘Navigation Networks in the Brain’ published by the Royal Institute of Navigation in “Navigation News” September/October issue (2014)

More on concepts http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/concept.php

Students studying the Edexcel Level 3 BTEC Subsidiary Diploma in Public Services

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Poppy’s Birthday

Poppy’s Birthday

poppy-in-autumn

Poppy waiting for her ball to be thrown (ball is at the bottom left hand corner) We were heading west and the tree in the foreground can be used as a direction indicator as most of the growth is on the left (southern) side.

Yesterday Poppy celebrated her eighth birthday. The sun was out and out we went for a walk. Poppy is a chocolate brown labrador cross and has a wonderful personality. Poppy is a neighbour’s dog and my wife takes her out almost every day but today I came along too. No, me being there wasn’t a birthday treat for Poppy but on this day she would go out on two different walks. When my wife takes Poppy out each walk they go on the route can vary subject to the weather conditions and state of the terrain. Which direction and route selection is very much in my wife’s hands and can change at a moments notice taking into account my wife‘s observations based mainly on the condition of the ground ahead. I wanted to see if Poppy has these routes imprinted. So out we went and every time Poppy reached a point where the route could go a different way she stopped. Poppy only moving on when instructed which way we were going and keeping on track until the next cross point. So does this mean that Poppy uses observation with points of recognition? With the evidence provided today it is highly likely that she does.

grey-poplar-tree

This Grey Poplar is located in an arboreum area and is a specimen tree grown in a nursery and was installed here a few years ago. This specific tree provides evidence that knowledge is as important as observation in direction finding.

Earlier in the week I received a copy of Harold Gatty’s book: “Nature is Your Guide – How to Find Your Way on Land and Sea by Observing Nature” which was published in 1958. This book has been on my really would like list for a few years and after unwrapping the packet I eagerly scanned though each section. Now having read a few chapters the underpinning elements to successful natural navigation are observation along with knowledge. Gatty was fascinated in how the early Polynesians navigated across the Pacific Ocean. He put his research based on their observations and knowledge into practice with two major events. One, in 1931, when he was the navigator on a record breaking eight-day flight around the world in an aircraft piloted by Wiley Post. The second was in 1943 when his first published work on navigation  “The Raft Book” became standard equipment on life rafts with the United States Army Air Force Pacific operation in WWII. “Nature is Your Guide” covers elements from both events together with general navigation observations on gaining direction which includes the effects of wind and sun on tree growth.

In summary then observation is a much needed element for navigation whether you are going on a local walk with the dog or crossing the Pacific Ocean. Also it is an important element in how a dog navigates and one cannot get more natural than that.

the-first-frost

Poppy’s birthday was the first time I saw ground frost this autumn

Harold Gatty; 1958; “Nature is Your Guide – How to Find Your Way on Land and Sea by Observing Nature”; New York; E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc.

#resilience & #grit, The Challenge completed

#resilience & #grit, The Challenge completed

Phew! The timekeeper confirms that my finish time was just under my target of five hours by 47 seconds. Earlier in the day, at 9am precisely, the start horn sounded and this year’s Seagrave Wolds Challenge (SWC) was underway.

seagrave-wolds-challenge-start

The start of the 2016 Seagrave Wolds Challenge

Held on the second Saturday in November this event is always a challenge due to the presence of mud and the distinct likelihood of rain. The SWC may only be 16 miles long but I needed resilience and grit to complete this year’s event. This year was the twelfth consecutive running of the SWC and my sixth completion. In the six times I have completed the event there have been four different routes. This shows a creative mindset to the route planners as the start and finish location is always in the Leicestershire Wolds village of Seagrave. The 2016 event was held on Saturday 12th November and was over a completely new route on mixed surfaces, taking in the Soar Valley, Mountsorrel and the scenically attractive Swithland Reservoir area. I was hoping for decent weather and an almost mud free walk just like my first SWC in 2011 but in the preceding week there was copious amounts of rain. So 2016’s SWC wasn’t going to be mud free just more muddier than usual plus the weather forecast for the Saturday was heavy rain for most of the day. With all this foresight should I bother to go? This is where one needs grit as it would be easy to stay at home be warm and dry and watch TV. However, I was in the zone to go as I prepared my gear the previous evening and my rucksack was packed and ready for action. During the walk I certainly needed resilience to contend with the mud and the weather difficulties that the day provided. The first four miles I completed in an average time of 15 minutes per mile so I hit the 4 mile check point 12 seconds over the hour mark. I was delighted with this given the conditions. Unfortunately, my target to reach the half way stage at mile 8 in under two hours didn’t materialise as when I went through this marker I was eleven minutes over. However, even with this disappointment I was still on schedule to complete the SWC in under 4.5 hours. It was not to be as the conditions took their toll and my lack of endurance fitness was beginning to take effect from mile 10. The last mile was particularly gruelling as it took me almost thirty minutes to complete!

this-way

The route is way marked throughout 

My Seagrave Wolds Challenge (SWC) 2016 performance

Mile   Time     Cumulative time swc-typical-terrain

  1.   15.12              15.12
  2.   16.45              32.00
  3.   13.29              45.25
  4.   14.46           1.00.12
  5.   19.22           1.19.33
  6.   17.08           1.36.41
  7.   20.13           1.56.54
  8.   14.41           2.11.35
  9.   17.46           2.29.21
  10.   22.52           2.52.12
  11.   17.38           3.09.50
  12.   23.36           3.33.26
  13.   17.45           3.51.11
  14.   16.35           4.07.46
  15.   21.53           4.29.39
  16.   29.34           4.59.13

Total time: 4 hours 59 minutes 13 seconds

On a personal level I am delighted I finished my sixth Seagrave Wolds Challenge. However, the SWC wouldn’t take place without the organisers, volunteers, land owners and support from Seagrave residents. So thanks to everyone involved in making the SWC a highly enjoyable event. Will I be back next year? Of course, and for 2017 the sun will shine and the terrain will be less muddier! Whatever the weather there will always be smiles from SWC supporters and crumble and custard at the finish!

swc-crumble-and-custard

What awaits every finisher – the Seagrave Wolds Challenge famous crumble and custard

For further information about this year’s and future Seagrave Wolds Challenges:

http://www.seagravewoldschallenge.co.uk/index.html

The Challenge – preparation and training

The Challenge – preparation and training

Next Saturday sees me on the starting line of the Seagrave Wolds 16 mile Challenge event. Preparation is thinking what to wear and carry for the walk and training means getting out of the chair and heading outdoors! Today #aussieEd on Twitter asked how do you unwind and relax? My reply was to read (maps), write (Blogs) and walk. Walk! Hey what am I doing reading tweets I need to head outside and do more training. Whilst preparing for the walk I selected clothing that I have worn before on previous Seagrave Wolds challenges and to trial stuff that I have bought since last year’s event. For both  items old and new this walk was a shake down to check or recheck that it works. Also I used experiences from walks I did during this summer especially the challenge events which I took part in. These were the 26 mile Dovedale Dipper and the 54 miles Three Forests Way. The former I completed and the latter I made it to 49 miles but then retired. Major issues for both events were footwear and coping with the heat. However, as the Seagrave Wolds Challenge is in early November the heat issue is unlikely. Footwear I sorted for the Three Forests Way but then underfoot conditions were hard and firm but for the Seagrave Wolds Challenge it will likely be wet and muddy. So taking all this into consideration I made my selection, put it on and stepped outside. Here is the run down on the performance on each item used today with a bit of history attached.

Troll Omni lightweight trousers

My go to trousers for walking built in North Wales from fabric made in Sweden.  Found them growing wild at Joe Brown’s Capel Curig shop. These are lightweight as they don’t have any zips and only have three pockets. The material they are made from is windproof, water resistant, breathable and durable. They have an elasticated waist with an integral belt, are a simple pull-on design and feature a gusseted crotch for freedom of movement. For me they are time tested as I have used them for many years and I have worn them for the last five Seagrave Wolds Challenge walks. Today they performed as usual in the changing conditions and even when it rained I didn’t feel I needed overtrousers.

Eddie Bauer lightweight 1/4 zip fleece

The oldest piece of kit I wore today which I bought around 20 years ago. Still in fabulous condition this item of clothing is made from lightweight Polartec fleece which I use predominately from November to February for technical walks. This is superb addition for a layering system as it is low bulk and flexible. Two lower pockets are well placed to warm hands. One of my few mail order purchases and obtained direct from Eddie Bauer when they had a base in the UK. Like the Omni trousers I have worn this on the five previous Seagrave Wolds Challenge walks. Provided effective warmth in today’s temperatures which averaged 5 degrees Centigrade.

Mountain Hardwear technical T-Shirt

Ideal for wearing under the Eddie Bauer fleece this T-Shirt is made from a technical fabric which has wicking properties. Found in the Rock Bottom department at Cotswold Camping a few years ago. Worked well today in the changing conditions encountered.

Mountain Hardwear Stretch Ozonic waterproof jacket

There are times when one is wandering around a gear store, in this case Ultimate Outdoors, looking for an item of gear one really needs but coming out with something one didn’t! Such was this case when I didn’t really need a new waterproof jacket but it was the half price that caught my eye. Plus of course this jacket was made from a fabulous sounding material Dry.Q. Reading the information on the hang tag I found out this is a four-way all over stretch fabric that boasts excellent performance in wet conditions. Made with a new fabric and half the price how could I resist? I couldn’t so I bought it. However, I did find sorting the hood out for a neat fit slightly time consuming whilst on my first outing with this jacket. So back home I made sure that I did tweak it to fit perfectly so all would be OK next time out. An essential for me when selecting a waterproof jacket is to have a chest pocket to store my glasses when it rains hard. This jacket has this and it is also a perfect storage solution when I take out my iPhone SE. Today it was worn throughout the walk and provided a comfortable and effective barrier to the wind and later the rain. The under sleeve zips allowed ventilation when needed.

Brooks Ghost 7 training shoes

brooks-ghost-7-training-shoes

Brooks Ghost 7 training shoes on the day I bought them

Searching for a couple of years for a suitable pair of what I can use as approach shoes I found these at TK Maxx this summer for a bargain price of £35 (SRP £125). Although not officially classified as approach shoes they have an excellent tread that suits off-road tracks and trails. I used them today over similar terrain to what I will encounter next week and found them able to cope with forest tracks and field paths. In the last two Seagrave Wolds Challenge walks I have worn boots but I am seriously considering wearing these as they are far lighter. The one draw back will be if the terrain is wet as these training shoes do not have a waterproof lining.

Asics black socks

Lightweight synthetic socks built for wearing with training shoes. Fast drying and offer reasonable support for their weight. Worn today with the Brooks Ghost 7 training shoes and no issues. Bought a few pairs a couple of years ago from Go Outdoors.

Lacoste underpants

After wearing Y-fronts for the Three Forests Way and having overheating problems in a sensitive region I went out and bought these. Tried them on pervious walks where I was out for up to three hours and they work fine as they did today. Another TK Maxx purchase with a great price reduction. Only problem is I should have bought two pairs!

Silk scarf

Finally, in previous Seagrave Wolds Challenges I have found I needed something to protect my neck when conditions are cold. I have always coveted a silk scarf but a mix of price, colour and pattern have been barriers. Then TK Maxx come to my rescue with a silk scarf made in India which was both cheap and in an appropriate colour with an abstract pattern. I needed this today for the start when I was warming up and I put it on to avoid a chill for the last fifteen minutes of the walk.

The walk

OK so that is the clothing sorted out but how did the walk go? Looking at the BBC weather forecast I knew that I couldn’t hang around too long as they predicted heavy rain at 12 noon. So I decided not to take photographs but just go for it. As the walk is just over seven miles it is almost half the distance of next Saturday’s Seagrave Wolds Challenge 16 miles walk so it will provide an indicator of my fitness level. Setting a fast pace from the outset I went through my timing points in faster times than I had done recently. However, I still wanted to experience the beauty of the countryside so I observed the scene as I walked along. One difference I noticed were mushrooms close by a recently reinstated field path. Then as I passed a section which still has small field systems I startled two green woodpeckers that were feeding on the ground. One was larger than the other so I am assuming that it was an adult with their youngster. The adult gave out the warning call and headed diagonally into a line of trees whilst the youngster took a straight line approach to the same tree line. What other birds in Britain are such a bright green with a vivid red cap? So wonderful to see and the first time I have seen green woodpeckers on this walk which I have completed over many years. Now back to the weather I felt the wind becoming stronger and then the first drops of rain. Looking at my watch it was 11.49am! Not a bad forecast then from the BBC only eleven minutes out! The rain that came wasn’t heavy as predicted but it was enough to need a waterproof jacket. The rain beading on the jacket confirmed it’s waterproofness. In the last fifteen minutes the rain became stronger so it was hood up and head down. As I approached my front door the heavy rain arrived but by then I was inside.

Further information:

http://www.seagravewoldschallenge.co.uk/index.html

http://www.trolloutdoors.com/omni-trouser-original

http://www.mountainhardwear.com/mens-stretch-ozonic-jacket-1584001.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/

The Iron Giant

The Iron Giant

bennerley-viaduct-from-nottingham-canal

Bennerley Viaduct from the Nottingham Canal

When will she awake? She has been asleep for almost 50 years. No one knows how to stir her from her slumber. Her near relative the Eiffel Tower draws over 19,000 visitors from all corners of the globe each day but this Iron Giant is lucky to get a few. Reaching for the sky is the stuff of dreams. Spanning a river is a physical necessity. Yes, this is the difference between these two Iron Giants – one was built in celebration of a dream and the other a need to a cross a river.

bennerley-viaduct-reflection-2

Bennerley Viaduct with reflection

How are they related? Before designing the Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel designed bridges for railways and the Bennerley Viaduct, The Iron Giant of this post, was based on Eiffel’s bridge designs. Eiffel pioneered using wrought iron latticed-work trestles for bridge supports to save weight and costs in bridge building. The usual material used for bridges in Britain was brick but due to the coal mining subsidence under the foundations of the Bennerley Viaduct wrought iron was selected due to being lighter in weight so not to cause any further disturbances. The main reason to build the Bennerley Viaduct was to allow the Great Northern Railway to transport coal from the rich seams of the Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire coalfields in the Erewash Valley to the rest of their railway system. The viaduct remained in use until 1968 when it closed to freight traffic.

bennerley-viaduct-close-up

Girder section with wrought iron lattice work support

Since November 1974 Bennerley Viaduct has been a Grade II* listed structure. Bennerley Viaduct is now managed by Sustrans who hope to re-open the viaduct and reuse it for a cycling and walking link between Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.

Ordnance Survey six-figure grid references SK 471437 to 474439

The Iron Giants compared:

Bennerley Viaduct (also known as the Awsworth Viaduct)

bennerley-viaduct-base-of-trestle

Trestle base

Length: 442.6m

Height :   18.5m

Started: May 1876

Opened: January 1878

Designer: Samuel Abbott with some involvement by Richard Johnson (Chief Engineer for the Great Northern Railway)

Reason built: spanning the Erewash Valley and linking Awsworth Junction railway station with Derby railway station

 

Eiffel Tower

Height : 324m

Length: 125m

Started: January 1887

Opened: March 1889

Designer: Gustave Eiffel

Reason built: 1889 Exposition Universelle to celebrate the 100th year anniversary of the French Revolution.

Further reading:

http://www.railwaypaths.org.uk/our-achievements/bennerley-viaduct/

http://bennerleyviaduct.org.uk/about

http://www.toureiffel.paris/en/everything-about-the-tower/the-eiffel-tower-at-a-glance.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bennerley_Viaduct

https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1140437

http://pedals.org.uk/sustrans-bennerley-viaduct-restoration-exciting-plans/